user requirement specification of Equipment

User Requirement Specification is a specific document where end user generally defines needs, target, goal and their expectation for a system, service and product. This is actually blueprint for the development personnel and it help to ensure that the product meet the target for the specific group.

A standard User Requirement Specification includes information about the user group, targeted use of the product, functional requirements, Operational requirements, and performance requirements. It also contains constraints or limitations.

A standard User Requirement establishes a better understanding between the stakeholders regarding a defined outcome; also sets a specific goal for the end-user and helps to save the project, and product delivery time the best thing is its budget-friendly; the user can previously estimate the cost of the specific project.

URS is generally developed by the buyer defining all listed requirements. After the development of a URS, the user sent it to the equipment manufacturer to prepare it as per predefined criteria.

A poorly developed URS is always creating confusion for the manufacturer, you can see the poorly written URS at the manufacturer’s end and If you don’t know how to write URS then you can ask standard URS template from the manufacturer, they are happy to help you. If supplied Template is found near your requirements then you can go with a modified version.

User Requirement Specification when disregarded?

A confusing URS is always disregarded. If the manufacturer can’t read you then the faulty or wrong machine can be developed which can destroy your project and A meaningful and well-written user requirement specification saves time and money; also reduce misunderstanding among the manufacturer.

A series of emails may generate to explain your requirement to the manufacturer which may express your poor level of understanding of the specific requirement also create of the high chance of wrong specification delivery and You have to express the requirement what exactly you are looking for in your User Requirement Specification (URS).

Keep it simple, Specific, and Better user requirement specification creates better outcomes.

Requirements of user and support design, qualification activities, operations, commissioning, and maintenance are mainly present on the URS. It’s good to set your mind at the start of your dream project.

According to Mark R. Smith, MD, Realtech,

“A standard URS shall be clear, jargon-free, easily readable, not hard to understand which helps to software engineer and Designer clearly readable and understandable of the user requirement with minimum cost and maximum output”.

Types of Requirements

There are several types of requirements that are depicted here.
[] Business Requirements
[] Functional Requirements
[] Stakeholder Requirements
[] Non-Functional Requirements
[] Transition Requirements

What thing to consider for user requirement specification (URS)?
Two main things shall be considered during the writing of URS, number one: What shall be included and number two what shall not be included.

What to include:

During the writing of the URS, the actual information shall be included in the URS. More information may require for big projects and less for a small project the basic of all URS shall be specific. Unknowingly including a feature that is not available in the market is the same as knowingly ruining your project.

Knowing then any feature should be included in the URS. The most important thing is to include only those specifications that are necessary. Features that will never be used need not be included but the facility to use updated features can be retained.

What not to include:

Ambiguous words or terms, Features that are not easy to understand, and that no one has yet used, features that are not user-friendly and will never be used, and features that are overpriced but less important shall be avoided.

How to proceed with your User Requirement Specification?

Before proceeding with your URS, define the responsibility of the stakeholders in your URS then collect all stakeholders’ signatures with designation and date. An approved URS shall be procced to the manufacturer to avoid any wanted circumstances. To sign a document means that you are responsible for it.

What should be included in the Introduction section?

In this section, you should describe more briefly about yourself and why this URS has been raised. Give a short description of your organization. Like “We are Startech is a startup organization in west Virginia. We want to install a high tech tablet compression machine to produce almost 6000K tablets per hour. This user requirement specification (URS) documents the user requirements for producing tablet dosage forms in a tablet compression machine.

The objective of the User Requirement Specification

They clearly describe the goal of the project so that anyone understands it. A brief overview of the project shall be included. Mention the actual purpose of the URS.

Who will write the User Requirement Specification?

Anyone can write URS, who has a thorough knowledge of the system, service, product, or machine in question. But you don’t let someone write something they don’t know about, for example, production personnel can’t write the URS of quality control equipment and vice versa.

How to document a User Requirement Specification?

The user will prepare the URS and another SEM will check the URS and Engineering personnel and the head of the user department will Review the document, finally Head of Quality will approve the URS. Always documented hierarchy shall be maintained.

To write user requirement specifications for a pharmaceutical company equipment following points should be included

1. Front Page: URS no., Revision no., Addendum no., Using Facility shall be mentioned.
2. List of revisions: Revision number shall be mentioned (if required).
3. List of addendums: Addendum to be mentioned (if required).
4. Table of Contents: Write the list content of the URS.
5. List of abbreviations: All abbreviations shall be mentioned.
6. Signature page: Signatory page contains all signatures including Approval authority.
7. Scope: The scope of the URS is to define the specific Equipment/Instrument.

8.0 Procedural Document Requirements:

This part gives information about the Equipment / Instrument including the Purpose of the Equipment, Specification, Qualification, etc.
8.1 Name of the Equipment: Name of the equipment to be mentioned here, if possible, and Model No. to be defined here.
8.2 Purpose of the Equipment: Purpose of the Equipment shall be clearly defined here.
8.3 Number of Equipment Required: Require quantity of the Equipment/Instrument shall be defined here.
8.4 Qualification: A list of qualification documents shall be mentioned here.
8.5 Specification of Equipment: All major specifications of the Equipment/Instrument shall be mentioned here.

9.0 Operational Requirements:

9.1 Vendor Scope: The Vendors scope shall include the Supply, Installation, and Documentation including calibration certificates, User training, and Details of service/maintenance contracts available.
9.2 Operation: Basic operative characteristics including Data logging (21 CFR part 11), controlling system, capacity, safety, and protection, the capacity of basic function, etc.
9.3 Options and Ancillaries: The vendor should identify, where applicable, their standard equipment that fits this specification. The vendor shall (where possible) also provide costs including, A range of additional maintenance support and services., Any additional accessories to fulfill the requirements indicated in section 9.2.
9.4 Interfaces: A user-friendly control system is required, that can allow system operation with a minimal amount of training.
9.5 Data and Security: If required, data and security articles are to be clearly defined here.
9.6 Environment: Instruments/Equipment’s operating environment should be clearly defined here. The operating area must fit with the specific Instruments/Equipment in such a way that it can be operated without any difficulty.

10.0 Constraints

10.1 Milestones and Timelines: A projected timeline and milestone may be set here.
10.2 Compatibility and Support: The internal components of the system must be compatible with, and resistant to, the materials used during operation. Operating power to be mentioned here.
10.3 Maintenance Requirements: The manufacturer should supply details of any maintenance/breakdown packages available.
10.4 Procedural Constraints

11.0 Life Cycle

11.1 Development Procedures: Future development procedures are to be mentioned here.
11.2 Testing Requirements: See Section 11 for a detailed matrix of the validation testing requirements.
11.3 Delivery Requirements: On supply, the following documentation should be supplied: Operation and maintenance manual (including manufacturer’s recommendations for maintenance schedules). Calibration certificates. Parts list and spare requirements. System specifications.
11.4 Support: The vendor must supply details of all service and maintenance requirements of the equipment. The vendor must also supply details of any service and maintenance support that they can supply.

12.0 GMP Requirement: A list of cGMP requirements shall be mentioned here.
13.0 Utilities Available at The Site of Installation: Utilities shall be described here including the power supply for the machine/equipment.
14.0 Documentation Requirement: A list of documents shall be described here such as Operation, cleaning, and maintenance manuals for equipment as well as the operation, Installation instructions/ guideline, other drawings (such as Mechanical, electrical, instrumentation, etc.), IQ/OQ documents & operating manual., Instrument calibration / Qualification certificates traceable to the national reference standards, Guaranty/ warranty certificates for the equipment, Shipping checklist, and Hardware design specification.
15.0 Terms and Conditions to Be Included in The Quotation: All the terms and conditions shall be described here.
16.0 All the discussion shall be noted here and contact personnel details shall be mentioned at the end of the discussion details.
17.0 Annexures: Mention annexures if there are any.
18.0 Validation Requirements:
The following details the test requirements for documentation, testing, and the stage of the project at which they must be provided/performed. These requirements are a minimum tariff, and the vendor is required to include any documentation, not already requested here, which is considered necessary to support the successful validation of the system.

Which things to follow to write a Modern User Requirement Specification?

From the discussion till now we know what to add to our URS and what not to add. Ambiguity to be avoided as much as possible should be written clearly so that anyone who reads it can understand it. Ambiguity is the enemy of any project’s success and expressing yourself as accurately as possible is possible. Communication must be done in an unambiguous manner to achieve good results; Your project will be successful when you are able to convey your message to others.

To write a best User Requirement Specification you need to keep the following points in mind:

user requirement specification
user requirement specification

1. Focus on Single Requirement:

Check each requirement to be developed and how it is tested. Project success depends on each effective requirement which is really a demand to the project. Avoid unnecessary requirements which really not essential to the project.

2. Avoid Haziness

Your URS must be clearly written. Use a Simple Sentence. No confusing word. Just say what you want and what not.

A user requirement specification should be clearly written, using simple sentences, and without ambiguity. Examples of ambiguous words are:

[] Easy
[] Strong
[] Improve
[] Fast
[] Slow
[] Enough
[] User friendly

What exactly are you meaning “Fast”? this term is theoretical; you can’t actually express your requirement using the word “Fast”. It is hard to measure. Avoid any abbreviations, acronyms, and jargon words (words and phrases, that are not generally understood).

3. Go with the SMART Approach

[] S for Specific
[] M for Measurable
[] A for Achievable
[] R for Realistic
[] T for Time-bound

SMART [Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-bound) targets offer a decent way to confirm your URS is well-defined and supportable.
Specific: All requirements mentioned in the URS must be specific, clear, and jargon-word-free. Don’t add any unnecessary requirements like easy and fast. Mention the actual specification.

Measurable: Reequipment must be measurable, don’t state anything which can’t confirm by testing or examination. Always avoid theoretical statements like rapid and swift. It can’t measure, you can’t prove that your requirements just met the specification until it is measurable.

Achievable: Never set a requirement which is can’t achieve with help of current technology. A feasibility study shall be done before setting any requirements. You can’t set any requirement which is technically impossible to achieve. It is wise to study well before adding features that you have no idea about. If even then you cannot be confirmed, then seek an expert for help. It is not right to add any feature without knowing it.

Realistic: It’s important to be realistic when determining the list of requirements. Sometimes technically achievable requirements may not be realistic due to regulatory requirements, time restrictions, Budget constraints, or other limitations.

Time-bound: A specific time frame shall be fixed to obtain your project. Even after finishing everything and if the specified time is not fixed, then any project may fail.

4. Organize

Organize your word choice and think carefully about it. Generally, the word “Shall” and “will” define the actual requirement which must be met. Word like “May” and “Could” use to define goals than are expected but not necessarily requirements. So, when you want the requirement must be met then use shall/will and use may/could for not mandatory cases.

5. Control Changes to the Requirements

Any type of changes may require during creating your list of requirements. Changes to the specification of the specific requirement shall be controlled. If any type of change directly affects the requirement, then the requirement shall be updated and a new version shall be created.

6. Requirements Must be Testable

Requirements shall be written in a such way that they can be tested and Specific requirements shall be traceable through the life cycle of the system/service/equipment/instruments.

7. Structural Products

Two types of products may be used as structural products & custom applications; for custom applications, the manufacturer must describe every process step to the user. For structural products, the process steps must be aligned with their predefined specification.

8. Vendor Audit

Most of the cases Regulated companies are most aware of their vendor for periodic assessment. All types of assessment/re-assessment perform in accordance with the Quality Management System (QMS).

9. Specifications

It is essential for the supplier to thoroughly document both the functionality and design of the system which is a prerequisite to ensure successful product development. Documentation must cover all aspects of the system, including software, hardware, and configuration, to meet all requirements to be established.

10. Training & Documentation

The supplier must agree to provide comprehensive system management documentation and provide instructions for both maintenance and use by the supplier and related issues must be agreed upon prior to system purchase.

11. Eliminate Requirement Redundancy

Avoid overcomplicating the system requirements and there is no need to bulk it up by duplicating it. Avoid duplication. Duplicating your documents may require more testing, documentation, and review time, making the project and time progressively longer Don’t include anything which is related to money or finance.

What is the difference between data and information

12. Embrace the Opportunity to Evaluate Vendors

Conducting audits on suppliers may include asking the following questions:
[] Security
[] Product support
[] End User training
[] Company Overview
[] Use of sub-contractors
[] Service delivery process
[] QMS application at the company
[] Development product life cycle
[] Key products development plans
[] Organization, roles, responsibilities, & training

13. Don’t be intimidated by your vendor comparisons

Utilize your URS to evaluate different vendors & note their advantages and disadvantages. If new information is found during the initial stage, feel free to revise your approved URS accordingly through the change control process. It is acceptable to make modifications or adjustments to the requirements to fit your needs until the final approval of the URS and it shall be revised the approved User Requirement Specification accordingly maintaining proper documentation.

14. What ought to be included in the URS?

The contents of a URS naturally include the following (but are not limited):
[] Functional requirements
[] Operational requirements
[] Technical requirements
[] Interface requirements
[] Data requirements
[] Security requirements
[] Regulatory requirements
[] Maintenance requirements
[] Availability requirements
[] Migration of any electronic data
[] Environmental requirements
[] Constraints to be observed
[] Life cycle requirements

15. Categorize Your Requirements

Categorize Your Requirements as-
[] Mandatory (High)
[] Beneficial (Medium)
[] Good to have it (Low)

16. Subjective Knowledge and Processing Step

To ensure that requirements, your professional knowledge is essential but not mandatory; if require you can seek help from an SME [Subject Matter Expert]. To identify key requirements of the system Process knowledge is required which are related to the manufacturing/servicing process. Look for the following key points-
[] Experience
[] Knowledge
[] Documentation

17. The requirements may be incomplete or not fully specified

Sometimes the requirements are not fully understood at the beginning of the project; Requirements evolve over time. URS shall be developed as per requirements when information is available. Don’t share incomplete User Requirement Specifications to the manufacturer to avoid any unwanted requirements.

Frequently Asked Questions

Are URS always required for validation?

At the initial stage of system/service/equipment/instruments, then URS is a valuable tool for ensuring the asking requirements. When an existing system is being validated then URS consider as a functional requirement. These two documents can’t be considered as single documents.

What is the benefit of good User Requirement Specification?

Requirements gathering is an important part of a good software/hardware/service/product development project. Good estimation, improved customer satisfaction, reduced cost, and project duration can all fail if good requirements are not selected and sufficient knowledge is not introduced in the selection If you are unclear about what you are delivering, no one can expect anything better from you.

There are Five main questions that shall be asked to develop any project:
[] Why we are doing it?
[] What do we need to do it?
[] What is the benefit?
[] How do we do it?
[] What is the timeframe?

If we fail to estimate project requirements or are unable to assume what is the requirement, can lead to a poor outcome of the project, and also lead to extra manpower, longer duration, and project costing.

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User Requirement Specification (URS) Template

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What is the difference between Data and Information?

Most of the cases we think that “data” and “information” are same but they actually aren’t the same though they are often used interchangeably. There are elusive differences between these two components & their purposes of use. information is organization & interpretation of group of facts where Data is defined as individual facts. To identify and solve problems, you can use the data & information together. To drive a successful business, we can use these two components to accelerate the ultimate mission to reach the goal.

What Is Data?

Collection of individual facts or statistics is defined as data (Data is plural form of ”datum” but the term didn’t use in for daily expression. Data has its various type of form such as figures, text, observations, numbers, images, graphs, or symbols. Individual dates, prices, weights, addresses, ages, temperatures, distances, names, etc. can the example of data.

Data is simply defined as “facts & figures”. Each piece of data is a tiny fact that doesn’t mean abundant of its own. Data can be defined for singular fact or collection of facts. It comes from the Latin word ”datum”, mean “something given”. “datum” is technically correct singular form of data but is hardly used in public language. Its early usage dates back to 1600s. Over time “data” has become plural of “datum”.

Data doesn’t carry any significance or purpose, it’s the raw form of knowledge. To make it meaningful you have to interpret data. Bits & bytes are used to measured data which are units of information in context of computer storage & processing the same.

Data without analyzed, organized, and interpreted may even seem useless & data can be simple. Two types of data are depicted here-
[][]Quantitative data is in numerical form, like volume, weight, cost of an item. Its not descriptive.
[][]Qualitative data is descriptive, like sex, name, or cloth color of a person. It’s not but non-numerical.

What Is Information?

It can be defined as act of knowledge gaining process through research, study, communication, or instruction. Information is the totality of group of analyzed and interpreting data. A data is always the individual numbers, figures, or graphs whereas information is considering the perception of those items. In this era, we can mention that most of the sophisticated modern industry always maintain environmental monitoring through recording of Temperature & Relative Humidity, through out the year of the year and achieve it in a suitable position.

Information can be defined as “news or knowledge received or given”. Processed, interpreted & organized facts is information. It comes from the Latin word īnfōrmātiō, mean “formation or conception.”

This type of recoding doesn’t bear any significant meaning but if you organize, analyze the recoded data then you can easily realize the Environmental condition changes in specific season. You can trend the data to sort out the best matching, minimum maximum data etc. which useful to set up or install the best quality BMS [Building Management System] parameter. Without analyzing and organizing the data, it is the just piece of recording doesn’t denote any significant value. A well-organized data can help the others.

In basic terms, it can be concluded that data is unorganized explanation of raw facts from which information can be take out.

Significant Differences Between Data vs Information

[][]collection of facts is considered as Data where information puts all of those facts into context.
[][]Data is always raw & unorganized where information is processed and organized.
[][]Data points are individual & most of the time it is unrelated. Information relates these points and show the actual behind it.
[][]Without analyzed and interpretation data is totally meaningless, when it organized then it became meaningful information.
[][]Data is always independent but Information depends on data due to you can’t get any information without processing data.
[][]Numbers, graphs, figures, or statistics is the form of data. Information generally appears as language, words, thoughts, ideas etc.
[][]To base on data, you can’t make any decision but when information available at your hand you can make any decision. So, data are not enough to make any decision, information require to do the same.
[][]Data always defines figures & facts. It comprises of one entry or collection of diverse values. Information defines values & context together, resulting in approximately meaningful. It forms an organized & interconnected structure, from data, to interpret or link the whole.

=>For data examples, we can use Lance, M. Kiely, 4590 Neville Street, Terre Haute, IN 47807. The separator [commas] characterize each distinct fact that may or may not be linked to others.
=>In this example of information, Each fact narrates to other facts to form a concept, known as Lance M. Kiely. Creating this Lance M. Kiely entity allows people to reason, calculate, & do other influences.
Lance M. Kiely
4590 Neville Street
Terre Haute, IN 47807

Data vs. Information in Computers

If we consider computers, Data can be considered as INPUT on anything that instruct to computer to do or store. The OUTPUT of the computer which exhibit your computer after your instruction to computer.

As per statistics, data defined as raw information but term statistics is often used in place of information. Statistics interpret & summarize data.
In business, data are often raw numbers & information is a collection of separate data points which you use to realize what you’ve restrained.

Data: typing the words “Dog videos” in your computer web search engine (INPUT).
Information: The list of search results which includes a variability of dog videos on the resulted browser page (OUTPUT).

Data: 9994565566
Information: phone number (555)456-5566 of a person.

Data: 46.07 & 789
Information: Molar mass & Density of Ethanol in g/mol & kg/m³

Data: 70%
Information: Isopropyl alcohol in percentage

Data: -16
Information: Freezing points of Vodka in Fahrenheit

Difference Between Data and Information

ContentUnrefined raw factors.Refined in a meaningful way.
CharacteristicData is considered property of a specific organization & is not offered for sale in the public.Information is offered for sale to public.
Decision MakingRaw data is insufficient to make any decision.Information is enough to make any decision.
DependencyData depends upon the sources for collecting method.Information always depends upon data.
Design of Data Data is never designed for specific need of user.Information is always explicit to requirements & expectations because all extraneous facts & figures are detached, during transformation process.
Dependency levelData never depends on Information.Information constantly depended on Data.
DescriptionHelps to develop ideas or conclusions based on Qualitative or Quantitative Variables.It is group of data which carries news and meaning.
EtymologyData has comes from Latin word, datum, means “To give something.” The word “data” become plural of datum.It comes from the Latin word īnfōrmātiō, mean “formation or conception.”
Example1.0 During word Tour Ticket sales on a specific Band.1.0 Sales report generate by region & venue gives information which venue perform best.
Example2.0 An example of data is a student’s Eye Color.2.0 The average Eye Color of a class is the information derived from the given data.
FormatData found in the form of letters, numbers, or a set of characters.Ideas and inferences
FeatureData is a single unit & raw. It doesn’t have any meaning alone.Information is artefact & group of data which jointly carry a logical meaning.
InterrelationCollected Information.Processed Information.
Knowledge levelLow-level of knowledge.Second level of knowledge.
MeaningData does not have any definite persistence.It conveys meaning that has been allocated by interpreting data.
Measuring unitMeasured in bits & bytes.Measured in different meaningful unit like time, quantity, etc.
Meaning of baseData is based on records & explanations and, which are deposited in computers or remembered by a individual.Information is considered more consistent than data. It helps investigator to conduct a appropriate analysis.
Support for Decision makingData can’t be used for decision makingIt is extensively used for decision making.
SignificanceData collected by the researcher, may or may not be useful in different situation.Information is useful & appreciated as it is readily accessible to the researcher for use.

List of Examples of Data vs Information

differences between data and information, how these examples turn data into insights:

[][]An individual customer’s bill amount is data at a specific restaurant but after a certain period of time or after one day collection when the restaurant Manager or owner collect all the customer bill of that day or time, it can produce valuable information of the restaurant as it can produce which item of the restaurant is hot cake or what item is running well and what are not. After that the restaurant, can realize how they can maintain the inventory of a specific item and how to continue their service as well as to minimize the overhead, wadges, supplies etc.

[][]An individual customer service survey of a restaurant is a data but after a period of time when compile the all the survey, then it can produce valuable data regarding area of improvement of the restaurant such as customer service, price, cleaning, mannerism, hospitality, space, location, viewpoint etc.

[][]A single social media like on a media post is a data but when multiple social media item like comments, share, statistics etc. are compiled then the specific company can focus on the specific social media where they are performing best and where they are in worst condition. Comments from a social post of multiple social media is very useful to do the same. It helps the company to set their goal based on the comments collect from customer and it help to find out multiple idea from multiple customers.

[][]On their own, inventory levels are data. However, when companies analyze and interpret that data over a range of time, they can pinpoint supply chain issues and enhance the efficiency of their systems.

[][]Inventory management of the company for the different item is the data but when it collects for certain period of time it can be valuable information regarding the inventory item which can help the supply chain management system to run their activity appropriately.

[][]A Price of a specific item is a valuable data but when processing the data from multiple company can produce valuable information regarding market gap, advantage of the competitor, profit margin, bonus, discount, policy etc. for the specific item.

[][]Taste of Azithromycin Suspension is a data but when you collect different taste from different company product you can produce valuable information regarding taste that which taste is more acceptable to the end user i.e., mango/orange/strawberry/pineapple etc. from this activity you can collect valuable information and implement the same for your company product.

[][]Temperature readings all over the world for the past 10 years can be consider as data. When this data is organized, analyzed to find out global temperature condition is raising over the period of time, then this data changed to information.

[][]Number of visitors to a specific website by country of the word is an example of data. Finding out that the traffic source from Canada is decreasing while that from Austria is increasing is meaningful information.

[][]Often data essential to back up a claim or supposition consequent or inferred from it. Such as before a drug is approved by FDA, manufacturer must conduct clinical trials & must have submit lot of data to reveal that the drug is safe.

“Misleading” Data

[][]Due to the processing of data, interpreted & analyzed, this is very possible that it can be interpreted incorrectly. When this leads to specious conclusions, it can be said that data are misleading. Often this is the consequence of imperfect data or a lack of framework. Such as your investment in a mutual fund may be up by 7% & you may accomplish that fund managers did a great job. Nevertheless, this could be misleading if major stock market indices are up by 10%. In this case, the fund has floundered the market pointedly.

[][]In the year of 2007, Famous toothpaste company Colgate ran an ad campaign & stating that 80% of the dentists recommend Colgate Toothpaste for safe dental health. From this promotion, many consumers assumed that Colgate was the best choice for their safe dental health for daily use. But in practical, this wasn’t inevitably true. In reality, this is the well-known example of misleading data & information.

[][]Anchor Tucker Carlson presented a graph saying, number of Americans recognizing as Christians had distorted over last decade during one of Fox News’s broadcasts. Over the image above, a graph showing in 2009, Christian Americans is 77%, number decreased to 65% in the year of 2019. Now, if issue here is not noticeable enough, here the Y-axis in that chart starts from 58% & ends at 78%, making the 12% drop from 2009 to 2019 look way more substantial than it really is.
Sample size is the vital point to make any key decision for the organization. Making any decision data collected from 100 sample is more accurate data collect from 10,000 sample. Data collect from 100 sample is misleading compare to 10,000. A key decision shall be make from vast amount of sample.

[][]Federal Trade Commission (FTC) filed a lawsuit against car company Volkswagen , which claimed that car company had betrayed customers with advertising campaign it used to promote its allegedly “Clean Diesel” vehicles, according to a press release.

In the year of 2015, it was uncovered that Volkswagen had been cheating emissions tests for its diesel cars in US in the past 7 years. The Federal Trade Commission, alleged that “Volkswagen cheated consumers by selling or leasing more than 550,000 diesel cars based on the false claims that cars were low-emission & environmentally friendly.” For their false claim, the company was remarkably fine up to $61 billion for the violation of Clean Air Act.

[][]Red Bull, Energy drinks company was sued in 2014 their slogan “Red Bull gives you wings.” The company settled case by agreeing to pay out maximum of $13 million — including giving $10 to every US consumer who had bought their drink since 2002.

They claim that the caffeinated drink could improve consumer’s concentration & reaction speed; the tagline company use for last two decade went alongside marketing claims. One of the regular customers of Red Bull drink claim that that he had not developed “wings,” or shown any signs of enhanced intellectual or physical capabilities.

[][]In 2010, Kellogg’s widespread Rice Krispies cereal had a crisis when it was defendant of misleading consumers about product’s immunity-boosting properties. The Federal Trade Commission [FTC] ordered Kellogg to close all advertising which claimed, cereal enhanced a child’s immunity with “25 percent Daily Value of Antioxidants and Nutrients -Vitamins A, B, C and E,” affirming the claims were “dubious.”

[][]New Balance, the famous show making company [Owner, Jim Davis, own almost 95% total share of this company] was defendant of false advertising in 2011 over a sneaker range which claimed that it could help wearers to burn calories but it was subsequently found that there were no health assistances from wearing this sneaker range. From New Balance, they explain that using hidden board technology & it was advertised as calorie burners which activated the quads, glutes, hamstrings & calves. New Balance agreed to pay a settlement of $2.3 million on August 20, 2012.

How Businesses Can Leverage Data & Information

Is it come to the point to distinction between data vs information really matter for businesses? If any company that company collect accurate data then interpreting it and generate information and implement the same on right time on right place can realize the actual benefit for the company.
For example, a company might gather data about the performance of their ads or content. Running a successful add or content to the various platform can produce valuable data. From the data they can produce right information regarding product design, brochure generation, promotional activity, product awareness, customer demand and customer buying capacity.

This can also help to develop target customer, future offering, promotion, branding and developing multiple products for the company.
Right data can lead the organization to the right goal but to maintain the right set of data is very difficult. There are several blockades to create a data dependent better smart organizational culture. Different team of an organization may collect & maintain disparate sets of information. Hence a central database system is crucially need for the organization. Without a central database system, none one can earn the actual benefit and interpretation of data may fail. Data need to supervise by someone, without proper supervision data may not maintain its proper quality and generate poor data mislead the organization.

Any business depends on expressive data patterns to get information. There are dissimilarities between data and information. Business relies on meaningful data patterns to get information, in this article let’s explore the differences and similarities between data and information. Misinterpretation the difference between “data” & “information” sets up the stage for slip-ups. Like the six blind men in an Indian legend, trying to define an elephant, end up puzzling discrete facts, or data, as information or meaning.

In six blind men’s dilemma, individually complicates data (trunk or legs) for information (an elephant is like giant cow or an elephant is like a giant snake). Likewise, anyone can collect customer data & think they have the full customer information when they are actually not. Data & Information have specific implementation. To correctly recognize & use either one, you need to understand the change between data & information is.

To create an effective data driven organization, then you need to maintain the data source which must available across the group of qualified people who are technically sound to generate information from processed data maintaining appropriate protocol to assure the proper data quality.
Data is very critical to generate information and both these two items is crucial to make any decision for the organization.

DIKW [Data Information Knowledge Wisdom] Model

DIKW is the model used for discussion of data, information, knowledge, wisdom & their interrelationships. It denote functional or structural relationships between data, information, knowledge & wisdom.

Are data and information the same thing?

Data is based on observation & records which frequently store in computers or simply memorize it by individual. On the other hand, information denotes to be more consistent than data. In other words, it is a proper analysis which researchers or investigators conduct for converting data into information.

Data and information may be the same thing, From a content & format perspective. For example, you can point same values in two diverse columns on a spreadsheet. Nevertheless, data & information contents & formats do not have to match. In any case, you use data & information very in a different way.
If you want to sort out the value “New York, United States” You will filter data named “New York” under city and “United States” under country.

On the same spreadsheet, If you want to know if the Lance M. Kiely records mean the identical person. Then look at the information in both rows & see, across the columns:
Lance M. Kiely
4590 Neville Street
Terre Haute, IN 47807
You determine both Lance M. Kiely, living in New York, United States, mean the same customer thing from the information provided.

How do data and information differ?

Though Data & information may have the same values but from the creation & business usage they may differ. Data generally includes entries whereas Information contains context. Information comprise data with different contents & formats & be the same thing.

As per data perspective point, “United States,” “UNITED STATES,” and “U.S.A.” represent entirely different facts based on number of characters & formatting varies. Therefore, Lance M. Kiely, who lives in U.S.A., is not same customer as Lance M. Kiely, who lives in United States.

If we consider information viewing platform, the “United States,” “UNITED STATES,” & “U.S.A.” represent the same thing for geographical reason because someone with understanding of geography can point to the “United States” or the “U.S.A.” on a American Map.

The correct data and accompanying context make the United States and the U.S.A. contain meaning about a shared concept of that region, like culture, sports, and government. From the shared concept of that region, like culture, sports, and government make the data more accurate. Lance M. Kiely, who lives in U.S.A., with Lance M. Kiely lives in the United States, and consider creating the same object. Comparing with the other people lives in United States using additional data points like cultural activities in U.K.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is data? Explain with example.

Raw, unorganized, unprocessed facts are known as Data. All of the facts consider as data until it processed, organized such as all information writing on the paper is data until its processed & organized in suitable manner.

What is information?

Processed, organized data which is advantageous in providing useful facts is known as Information. For Ex. It can be concluded that if data are processed and organized in right way generate valuable piece of information.

What is valid information?

A reliable fact is considered as Valid information. Checked & verified information that is ready for use in a specific purpose.

What is the classification of Data?

Classification of Data

Data classification is a critical element of any information security & compliance program, especially if any organization stores big volumes of data. To understand the data security strategy, classification of data plays an important role providing information that where the sensitive data shall be stored. It provides valuable information regarding unused data & elimination of the same type reduce the maintenance cost for the organization.

Types of Data Classification

[][]Content-based classification inspects & interprets files to classify sensitive information.
[][]Context-based classification looks at location, application, creator tags & other variables as secondary indicators of subtle information.
[][]User-based classification depends on manual selection of each document by an individual.

Basic Classification Scheme

The modest scheme is three-level classification:

[][]Public data
Data that can be freely revealed to the public. Examples include any company contact information & any browser cookie policy.

[][]Internal data
Data that has low security level but is not for public expose, like marketing research for a product.

[][]Restricted data
Highly subtle internal data. Expose to public platform create negative impact on operations and put the company at financial or legal risk. Restricted data entails the highest level of security protection at any cost.

Government Classification Scheme

Government agencies use three levels of sensitivity as top secret, secret and public but based on situation can be classified into five types

[][]Top secret-Cryptologic & communications intelligence
[][]Secret-Selected military plans
[][]Confidential-Data signifying the strength of ground forces
[][]Classified-Data labelled “For Official Use Only”
[][]Unclassified-Data that may be publicly released after authorization of respective body.

Commercial Classification

Typically, organizations that store & process commercial data use 4 levels to classify data: 3 private levels and one public level.

[][]Sensitive- Intellectual property, Secrete Formulation, PHI
[][]Confidential-Vendor contracts, employee reviews, Contract, Special Allowance
[][]Private-Customer names or images, Sensitive Video promotion
[][]Proprietary-Organizational processes, Quality System
[][]Public-Information that may be disclosed to anyone

What is the meaning of the two types of data?

The two types of data are qualitative & quantitative. Qualitative data is non-numerical data like eye color, skin texture, Hair color, Shoe color, Clothing color and more. On the other hand, quantitative data is in the form of numbers like the weight of books, number of apples, number bird and more.

What is the difference between Data and Information? Read More »

ALCOA Plus and ALCOA its importance in data integrity

ALCOA Plus [ALCO+] is the most powerful and sharp compare to previously introduced ALCO has the great importance regarding data integrity in pharmaceuticals company. Data security is the provocative questions is the pharmaceutical and related healthcare sector. Adulteration of data leads to serious health hazard to the end user.

All of the regulatory authority of healthcare related sector has taken their active place against data Adulteration. Data must be accurate, No an Adulterate data is accepted at any situation. Everybody desire the right data at any time any place. Data violation define the serious non-compliance of GMP.

ALCOA is abbreviate form, which indicate Attributable, Legible, Contemporaneous, Original and Accurate. In the period ALCOA, extend to ALCOA Plus[ALCOA+] by addition of Complete, Consistent, Enduring and Available.

In previous time all of the GMP compliance company use ALCOA, now they use ALCOA Plus concept to capture its place the most dependable tool for data security. Most of the GMP oriented company taken the tool for data security and data quality. ALCOA Plus ensure the data security and Integrity. All of the major GMP authority choose ALCOA Plus and implemented their respective directive. ALCOA determine the all-out of data quality. UK MHRA, FRA, TGA, WHO purely involved in data security, quality and data integrity.

The ALCOA and ALCOA Plus concept has been illustrated for better understanding of data related matters.


1. Attributable

Attributable define that the data must be easily traceable, so that anyone can identify that a specific person has collect the data in define time and noted down correctly. To correct any type of error regarding data recording, correction to be made in such way that anyone can read the error data and the corrected data easily. Reason must be noted down with specific signature and date.

Any document subject to data recording must be contains specific field where anyone can note down his/her name then signature and date option. Specific must contains sufficient space so that anyone can record data easily. If any alteration required, put a straight line over the error data then write down the actual data with signature and reason. If space is not available the put an asterisk mask then put another asterisk in a place where sufficient space for signature and reason recording.

2. Legible

Most of document in pharmaceutical company subject to data recording in specific field of a specific document. Entered data must be readable. Data which can be easily readable defined as legible data. Unclear data create confusion to reader and result of a specific test or critical point create unwanted error. The personnel who are responsible to entered data must be trained on GDP [Good Documentation Practice].

Permanent ink or indelible ink to be use to record the data, ball point pen to be use instead of fountain pen. Different color ink to be use to identify the recorded data easily i.e. if the printed document is black color then blue color ink pen can be use to record the data. Similar color ink pen with printed document create delay to identify the specific data.

The input data must be clear and easy to traceable who is responsible to input the data. Data should be entered in such way that no visibility of data subject to misunderstanding to the reader. Anyone who is going to deal with the recorded data must be comfortable with it.

3. Contemporaneous

All the data subject to recoded in document must be recorded on time indicate contemporary data. All data must be entry on the specific field of the document, just after completion of the work with signature and date, if any error occur during data recording then GDP to be follow to correct the issue.

If any correction identified after recording of data in the later date then actual data to be entered data and time with signature on that date. No advance or later data entry is not indicate cGMP culture at your firm. On time data recording is the pre-requisite of the compliance.

A person on the specific date may be absent or leave or fall any unwanted situation, if he fail to entry the data cause serious non-compliance so in time data entry to be ensure. If require, a training session may be conduct to emphasize the importance of contemporary data. Contemporary data culture on the document define that your firm is up to date and ready to face any compliance audit both local and global.

4. Original

To protect the data integrity, the original record must be preserved in such way that it can be preserved till it expiry. Batch document and some documents to be kept additional one year from its product expiry but validation document lasts company life so all type of document preservation may not same. A policy to be develop to preserve the documents and record.

Some document need to duplicate in multiple copy, in this case the creator must ensure the authenticity of the multiple copy with the help of site quality head other that QA documents. A controlled copy seal may be introduce for this issue.

5. Accurate

All data subject to record in the document must be error free. Data can’t be change at any cost. Alteration of data is strictly prohibited. Print out any data create its accuracy, hand written or manually input data, subject to change or alteration. If any facility declare to print out option then manually input data is totally invalid. You must follow the machine print out. To maintain the data quality is the big compliance issue.

Alteration of any digit in manually define the serious discrepancy data quality. It is undesirable to may any digit to next digit or similar digit. Data rounding may be accepted as per USP method but it is not mandatory to follow.

6. Complete

If it’s declare that the data is complete, then it means no alteration, deletion, only original data has been taken from its actual documented time. Incomplete data create haphazard situation to identify the original. Incomplete data recording leads the false result. Data to be record at actual from its predefined time as mention on the document.

If any document declare that you have to record data in 45 minutes interval then you have to record the data at 45 minutes interval not 50 or 60 minutes interval. If you note/record data other than 45 minutes create incomplete/false data. This data is purely incomplete.

7. Consistent

Data must be consistent, chronologically arranged in appropriate time frame. Data should be record in in such way that any audit can rely on it. GDP practice is the best way to record the data. Series of data that is chronologically organized define the data is more consistent and reliable. A reliable data can face any type of GMP audit due to it provides best data integrity.

Most of the pharma company face serious non-compliance at regulatory audit for data integrity. If your firm confirm data integrity then you can create best GMP culture at your firm. To maintain data integrity is the prior conditions of the cGMP.  

8. Enduring

All type of material is not suitable for data recording, specific paper to be introduce for specific data recording. Data to be record in such material that it can be traceable after a period of time. Generally long lasting material use for data recording. You should take care about readability of data after a specific period of time based on its impotence.

Usually better quality paper use to record validation related document as its last till company life. Regular uses document like batch production record may be record in general usage paper as its last maximum 3 to 5 years including shelf life plus one year.

Document subject to destruction, proper recording to be marinated as it can be easily teachable. Approval must be taken before proceeded any type of destruction related activities.

9. Available

Data should be kept in a specific place where you can easily find it or it is available as when required. It should be keep in a secure place and access must be limited. List of personnel must be define to access the specific area. Data plays an important role when any organization want to take any decision based on previous history. By this time you have to make it available on that time so you have to keep it in right place. All type of future reference backed by data history so you must pay attention to secure your data.

This all about ALCOA and ALCOA Plus

ALCOA Plus and ALCOA its importance in data integrity Read More »

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